Submission Guidelines

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Author Guidelines

Submissions should be made electronically through this website. Once submitted, the author can track the submission and communicate with the editors via the online journal management system.

Please ensure that you consider the following guidelines when preparing your manuscript. Failure to do so may delay processing your submission.

Article types

Research articles must describe the outcomes and application of unpublished original research. These should make a substantial contribution to knowledge and understanding in the subject matter and should be supported by relevant figures and tabulated data. Research articles should be between 6000-9000 words in length, excluding footnotes and bibliography.

Book Reviews must be on recent publications in a domain relevant to the journal’s scope and aims, which will be advertised by the Review Editor. They should demonstrate an understanding of the critical context of the chosen book and offer an appraisal of its contribution to the field. Reviews should be no more than 2,000 words in length, excluding footnotes and bibliography.

Structure

Title page
To ensure blind peer review, please only list the title and abstract on the submitted manuscript file.

The names of all authors, affiliations, contact details, biography (optional) and the corresponding author details must be completed online as part of the submission process. All authors must fit within the journal's definition of an author, available here.

Author names should include a forename and a surname. Forenames cannot include only initials.

For example,J. Bloggs is not preferred. The full name, Joe Bloggs is required (this will enhance the 'findability' of your publication).

The affiliation should ideally include ‘Department, Institution, City, Country’. However only the Institution and Country are mandatory (if independent, list as Independent Researcher).

Abstract
Research articles must have the main text prefaced by an abstract of no more than 250 words summarising the main arguments and conclusions of the article. This must have the heading ‘Abstract’ and be easily identified from the start of the main text.

A list of up to six key words may be placed below the abstract (optional).

The Abstract and Keywords should also be added to the metadata when making the initial online submission.

Main text
The body of the submission should be structured in a logical and easy to follow manner. A clear introduction section should be given that allows non-specialists in the subject an understanding of the publication and a background of the issue(s) involved. Methods, results, discussion and conclusion sections may then follow to clearly detail the information and research presented.

Up to three level headings may be present and must be clearly identifiable using different font sizes, bold or italics. We suggest using Headings 1, 2 and 3 in MS-Word’s ‘Style’ section.

Data Accessibility
If data, structured methods or code used in the research project have been made openly available, a statement should be added to inform the reader how/where to access these files. This should include the repository location and the DOI linking to it. Read our reproducibility guide for more information on best practice and maximising the impact of your open data.

If it is not possible to use a repository then the journal can host supplementary files. Such files must be listed in the Data Accessibility section, with a corresponding number, title and optional description. Ideally, the supplementary files are also cited in the main text.

e.g. Supplementary file 1: Appendix. Scientific data related to the experiments.

Supplementary files will not be typeset so they must be provided in their final form and must be submitted for review during the original submission process. They will be assigned a DOI and linked to from the publication by the publisher.

NOTE: If data used in the research project has not been made available, a statement confirming this should be added, along with reasoning why.

The journal's data policy is available on the Editorial Policies page.

Ethics and consent (if applicable)
Research involving human subjects, human material, or human data, must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Where applicable, studies must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee and the authors should include a statement within the article text detailing this approval, including the name of the ethics committee and reference number of the approval. The identity of the research subject(s) should be anonymised whenever possible. For research involving human subjects, informed consent to participate in the study must be obtained from participants (or their legal guardian) and added to this statement. If a study involving human subjects/tissue/data was exempt from requiring ethical approval, a confirmation statement from the relevant body should be included within the submission.

Experiments using animals must follow national standards of care. For further information, click here.

Acknowledgements (optional)
Any acknowledgements must be headed and in a separate paragraph, placed after the main text but before the reference list.

Funding Information (if applicable)
Should the research have received a funding grant then the grant provider and grant number should be detailed. 

Competing interests
If any of the authors have any competing interests then these must be declared. A short paragraph should be placed before the references. Guidelines for competing interests can be found here. If there are no competing interests to declare then the following statement should be present: The author(s) has/have no competing interests to declare.

Authors' contributions
A sentence or a short paragraph detailing the roles that each author held to contribute to the authorship of the submission. Individuals listed must fit within the definition of an author, as per our authorship guidelines.

References
All references cited within the submission must be in MHRA format and listed at the end of the main text file. Link to the MHRA guide is mhra.org.uk.

Permissions

The author is responsible for obtaining all permissions required prior to submission of the manuscript - these include any images or photographs included with submission. Permission and owner details should be mentioned for all third-party content included in the submission or used in the research.

If a method or tool is introduced in the study, including software, questionnaires, and scales, the license this is available under and any requirement for permission for use should be stated. If an existing method or tool is used in the research, it is the author's responsibility to check the license and obtain the necessary permissions. Statements confirming that permission was granted should be included in the Materials and Methods section.

Language & Text

Capitalisation
For the submission title:

Capitalise all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs and subordinate conjunctions (i.e. as, because, although). Use lowercase for all articles, coordinate conjunctions and prepositions.

For example, Slip-Sliding on a Yellow Brick Road: Stabilization Efforts in Afghanistan

Headings within the main text:

First level headings in the text should follow the same rule as the main title.

For lower-level subheadings, only capitalise first letter and proper nouns.

Headings should be under 75 characters.

Spelling
Submissions must be made in English. Authors are welcome to use American or British spellings as long as they are used consistently throughout the whole of the submission.

For example, Colour (UK) vs. Color (US)

When referring to proper nouns and normal institutional titles, the official, original spelling must be used.

For example, World Health Organization, not World Health Organisation

Grammar
American or English grammar rules may be used as long as they are used consistently and match the spelling format (see above). For instance, you may use a serial comma or not.

e.g. red, white, and blue OR red, white and blue

Font
The font used should be commonly available and in an easily readable size. This may be changed during the typesetting process.

Underlined text should be avoided whenever possible.

Bold or italicised text to emphasise a point are permitted, although should be restricted to minimal occurrences to maximise their efficiency.

Lists
Use bullet points to denote a list without hierarchy or order of value. If the list indicates a specific sequence then a numbered list must be used.

Lists should be used sparingly to maximise their impact.

Quotation marks
Use single quotation marks except for quotes within another speech, in which case double quotation marks are used.

Quotations that are longer than three lines in length must be in an indented paragraph separate from the main text.

The standard, non-italicised font must be used for all quotes.

It must be clear from the text and/or citation where the quote is sourced. If quoting from material that is under copyright then permission will need to be obtained from the copyright holder.

Acronyms & Abbreviations
With abbreviations, the crucial goal is to ensure that the reader – particularly one who may not be fully familiar with the topic or context being addressed – is able to follow along. Spell out almost all acronyms on first use, indicating the acronym in parentheses immediately thereafter. Use the acronym for all subsequent references.

For example, Research completed by the World Health Organization (WHO) shows …

A number of abbreviations are so common that they do not require the full text on the first instance. Examples of these can be found here.

Abbreviations should usually be in capital letters without full stops.

For example, USA, not U.S.A

Common examples from Latin origin do not follow this rule and should be lower case and can include full stops.

e.g., i.e., etc.

Use of footnotes/endnotes
Use endnotes rather than footnotes (we refer to these as ‘Notes’ in the online publication). These will appear at the end of the main text, before ‘References’.

All notes should be used only where crucial clarifying information needs to be conveyed.

Avoid using notes for purposes of referencing, with in-text citations used instead. If in-text citations cannot be used, a source can be cited as part of a note.

Please insert the endnote marker after the end punctuation.

Data & Symbols

Symbols
Symbols are permitted within the main text and datasets as long as they are commonly in use or have explanatory definition on their first usage.

Hyphenation, em and en dashes
There is no set rule on the use of hyphenation between words, as long as they are consistently used.

Em dashes should be used sparingly. If they are present, they should denote emphasis, change of thought or interruption to the main sentence and can replace commas, parentheses, colons or semicolons.

For example, The president’s niece — daughter of his younger brother — caused a media scandal when…

En dashes can be used to replace ‘to’ when indicating a range. No space should surround the dash.

For example,

10-25 years

pp. 10-65

Numbers
For numbers zero to nine please spell the whole words. Please use figures for numbers 10 or higher.

We are happy for authors to use either words or figures to represent large whole figures (i.e. one million or 1,000,000) as long as the usage is consistent throughout the text.

If the sentence includes a series of numbers then figures must be used in each instance.

For example, Artefacts were found at depths of 5, 9, and 29 cm.

If the number appears as part of a dataset, in conjunction with a symbol or as part of a table then the figure must be used.

For example, This study confirmed that 5% of…

If a sentence starts with a number it must be spelt, or the sentence should be re-written so that it no longer starts with the number.

For example, Fifteen examples were found to exist…

The result showed that 15 examples existed…

Do not use a comma for a decimal place.

For example, 2.43 NOT 2,43

Numbers that are less than zero must have ‘0’ precede the decimal point.

For example, 0.24 NOT .24

Units of measurement
Symbols following a figure to denote a unit of measurement must be taken from the latest SI brochure. See http://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/si_brochure_8_en.pdf for the full brochure.

Formula
Formulae must be proofed carefully by the author. Editors will not edit formulae. If special software has been used to create formulae, the way it is laid out is the way they will appear in the publication.

Figures & Tables

Figures
Figures, including graphs and diagrams, must be professionally and clearly presented. If a figure is not easy to understand or does not appear to be of a suitable quality, the editor may ask to re-render or omit it.

All figures must be cited within the main text, in consecutive order using Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.).

Each figure must have an accompanying descriptive main title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the figure image. A short additional figure legend is optional to offer a further description.

For example, Figure 1: 1685 map of London.

Figure 1: 1685 map of London. Note the addition of St Paul’s Cathedral, absent from earlier maps.

Figure titles and legends should be placed within the text document, either after the paragraph of their first citation, or as a list after the references.

The source of the image should be included, along with any relevant copyright information and a statement of authorisation (if needed).

For example, Figure 1: Firemen try to free workers buried under piles of concrete and metal girders. Photo: Claude-Michel Masson. Reproduced with permission of the photographer.

If your figure file includes text then please present the font as Ariel, Helvetica, or Verdana. This will mean that it matches the typeset text.

NOTE: All figures must be uploaded separately as supplementary files during the submission process, if possible in colour and at a resolution of at least 300dpi. Each file should not be more than 20MB. Standard formats accepted are: JPG, TIFF, GIF, PNG, EPS. For line drawings, please provide the original vector file (e.g. .ai, or .eps).

Tables
Tables must be created using a word processor's table function, not tabbed text.

Tables should be included in the manuscript. The final layout will place the tables as close to their first citation as possible.

All tables must be cited within the main text, and numbered with Arabic numerals in consecutive order (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, etc.).

Each table must have an accompanying descriptive title. This should clearly and concisely summarise the content and/or use of the table. A short additional table legend is optional to offer a further description of the table. The table title and legend should be placed above the table.

Tables should not include:

  • Rotated text
  • Colour to denote meaning (it will not display the same on all devices)
  • Images
  • Vertical or diagonal lines
  • Multiple parts (e.g. ‘Table 1a’ and ‘Table 1b’). These should either be merged into one table, or separated into ‘Table 1’ and ‘Table 2’.

NOTE: If there are more columns than can fit on a single page, then the table will be placed horizontally on the page. If it still can't fit horizontally on a page, the table will be broken into two.

References

In-text citations
Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text so that it is clear that external material has been used using MHRA format.

If the author uses a footnote on the first reference, then continues to cite from that reference it should be written as (name, page number).

For example, (Brown, p. 10)

If the author name is not mentioned in the main text then the surname and year should be inserted, in parenthesis, after the relevant text. Multiple citations should be separated by semi-colon and follow alphabetical order.

For example, The statistics clearly show this to be untrue (Brown 2010; Jones 2013).

If three or fewer authors are cited from the same citation then all should be listed. If four or more authors are part of the citation then ‘et al.’ should follow the first author name.

For example,(Jones, Smith & Brown 2008)

(Jones et al. 2008)

If citations are used from the same author and the same year, then a lowercase letter, starting from ‘a’, should be placed after the year.

For example,(Jones 2013a; Jones 2013b)

If specific pages are being cited then the page number should follow the year, after a colon.

For example,(Brown 2004: 65; Jones 2013: 143)

For publications authored and published by organisations, use the short form of the organisation’s name or its acronym in lieu of the full name.

For example, (ICRC 2000) NOT (International Committee of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 2000)

Please do not include URLs in parenthetical citations, but rather cite the author or page title and include all details, including the URL, in the reference list.

Numeric in-text citations 
Every use of information from other sources must be cited in the text so that it is clear that external material has been used. Each time a reference is being cited it should be represented by sequential numbers held within square brackets, within punctuation. Each citation should be a unique number unless it has been previously cited. In such cases, the original citation number should be presented. The reference list at the end of the publication will reflect this numbered list, with full reference data for each entry.

For example, This is citing an existing source [1]. 

If citing multiple sources at the same point, separate the citations with a comma.

For example, This is citing multiple existing sources [2,3,4].


Reference list

All citations must be listed at the end of the text file within a bibliography section, in alphabetical order of authors’ surnames/in numerical order [delete as appropriate].

All reading materials should be included in ‘Bibliography’ – works which have not been cited within the main text, but which the author wishes to share with the reader, must be cited as additional information in footnotes explaining the relevance of the work. This will ensure that all works within the reference list are cited within the text.

NOTE: If multiple works by the same author are being listed, please re-type the author’s name out for each entry, rather than using a long dash.

NOTE: DOIs should be included for all reference entries, where possible.


Reference format
This journal uses the MHRA system – see below for examples of how to format:

  • Books:

Author, AA. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Adam, DJ. 1984. Stakeholder analysis. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Silverman, DF. and Propp, KK. (eds.) 1990. The active interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

  • Chapters within books:

Achebe, C. 1995. Colonialist Criticism. In: Ashcroft, B et al The Post Colonial Studies Reader. London: Routledge. pp. 57–61.

  • Journal articles:

Author, A. Year. Title. Journal name, vol(issue): page. DOI
Martin, L. 2010. Bombs, bodies and biopolitics: Securitizing the subject at airport security. Social and Cultural Geography, 11(1): 17-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14649360903414585

NOTE: Please include DOIs for all journal articles where possible.

  • Conference papers:

Author, A. Year. Title of chapter. In: Title of conference proceedings, location, date, pp. page.
Lynch, M. 2003. Dialogue in an age of terror. In: The Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia, PA on 18 August 2003, pp. 4-7.

  • Organisational publications/Grey literature:

Author group. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher
World Health Organization. 2010. The world health report – Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

  • Theses and dissertations:

Author, A. Year. Title. Unpublished thesis (PhD), institution.
Yudis, A. 2004. Failed responsibility of the media in the war on Iraq. Unpublished thesis (PhD), University of Manchester.

  • Webpages / PDFs:

Author, A. Year. Title, date of publication. Available at URL [Last accessed date month year].
Pascual, Amb. C. 2005. Stabilization and Reconstruction: Building peace in a hostile environment. Prepared statement to Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 16 June 2005. Available at http://2001-2009.state.gov/s/crs/rls/rm/48644.htm [Last accessed 14 August 2012].

  • Newspaper articles [print]:

Author, A. Year. Title. Newspaper, date of publication, page.
Tate, P. 2007. Illicit organ trade increasing. The Jordan Times, 6 June, p. 3.

  • Newspaper articles [online]:

Author, A. Year. Title. Newspaper, date of publication, [URL and last accessed date].
Patel, SS. 2005. Climate; In a Marsh, Sifting the Past And Seeing the Future. The New York Times, 6 November [online access at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800EEDF173EF935A35752C1A9639C8B63 last
accessed 28 April 2014].

This journal uses the APA system – see below for examples of how to format:

  • Books:

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Leaver, B. L., Ehrman, M., & Shekhtman, B. (2005). Achieving success in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511610431

  • Chapter within books: 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Jacobs, G. M., & Hall, S. (2002). Implementing cooperative learning. In J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp. 52-58). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511667190.009

  • Journal articles: 

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Radford, M. (2001). Aesthetic and religious awareness among pupils: Similarities and differences. British Journal of Music Education, 18(2), 151-159. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0265051701000249

  • Newspaper articles (online): 

Author, A. (year, date). Article title. Newspaper. Retrieved from www.URL
McMahon, S. (2010, July 19). Fund new Victorian era. Herald Sun. Retrieved from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/

  • Newspaper articles (print): 

Author, A. (year, date). Article title. Newspaper. pp. page number
Parker, K. (2008, December 3). Plea for languages. Koori Mail, pp. 19-20

  • Conference papers: 

Author, A. (year, month). Title. Paper presented at Conference title, Location, Country.
Liu, C., Wu, D., Fan, J., & Nauta, M. M. (2008, November). Does job complexity predict job strains? Paper presented at the 8th Biannual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology, Valencia, Spain.

  • Organisational publications/Grey literature: 

Organisation. (year). Title. Series/publication number. Retrieved from (if online)
World Bank. (2008). Textbooks and school library provision in secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank Working Paper No. 126. Africa Human Development Series). Retrieved from EBL database.

  • Theses and dissertations: 

Author, A. A. (year). Thesis title (Doctoral dissertation, Institution, location). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Murray, B. P. (2008). Prior knowledge, two teaching approaches for metacognition: Main idea and summarization strategies in reading (Doctoral dissertation, Fordham University, New York)

  • Webpages / PDFs: 

Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2011). Australia's health 2004. Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.cfm/title/10014

This journal uses the Vancouver system – see below for examples of how to format:

  • Books: 

Author AA, Author BB. Title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Leaver BL, Ehrman M, Shekhtman, B. Achieving success in second language acquisition. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press; 2005.

  • Chapters within books: 

Author AA. Chapter title. In: Editor A, Editor B (eds.) Title of book. Series title and number and edition (if appropriate). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Page numbers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx
Jacobs GM, Hall S. Implementing cooperative learning. In Richards JC & Renandya WA (Eds.) Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press. 2002. pp. 52-58.

  • Journal articles: 

Author AA, Author BB. Article title. Journal title. Year; Volume(issue): Pages. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx 
Radford M. Aesthetic and religious awareness among pupils: Similarities and differences. British Journal of Music Education. 2001; 18(2): 151-159. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0265051701000249

  • Newspaper articles (online): 

Author A. Article title. Newspaper. Day Month Year of publication. URL (assessed day month year). 
McMahon S. Fund new Victorian era. Herald Sun. (19 July 2010). http://www.heraldsun.com.au/ (assessed 02 March 2012).

  • Newspaper articles (print): 

Author A. Article title. Newspaper. Day month year of publication: page number. 
Parker K. Plea for languages. Koori Mail, 3 December 2008: 19-20.

  • Conference papers: 

Author A. Title of paper. In: Editor AA, Editor BB. (eds.) Conference proceedings title, Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Page numbers. 
Wittke M. Design, construction, supervision and long-term behaviour of tunnels in swelling rock. In: Van Cotthem A, Charlier R, Thimus JF, Tshibangu JP. (eds.) Eurock2006: multiphysics coupling and long term behaviour in rock mechanics: proceedings of the International Symposium of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, EUROCK2006, 9-12 May 2006, Liège, Belgium. London: Taylor & Francis; 2006. 125-156.

  • Organisational publications/Grey literature: 

Organisation. Title. Series/publication number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Retrieved from (if online). 
Department of Health. Choosing Health: making healthier choices easier, CM6374. London: Stationery Office; 2001.

  • Theses and dissertations: 

Author AA. Thesis title. Type of thesis. Academic institution; Year. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx 
Murray BP. Prior knowledge, two teaching approaches for metacognition: Main idea and summarization strategies in reading. PhD thesis. Fordham University, New York. 2008.

  • Webpages / PDFs: 

Author AA. Title of work. URL (accessed date month year). 
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia's health 2004. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.cfm/title/10014 (accessed 20 May 2013). 

This journal uses the Chicago ‘author-year’ reference system – see below for examples of how to format (for more information, visit The Chicago Manual of Style Online):

  • Books: 

Last name, First name. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx 
Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin. Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf. 

  • Chapters within books: 

Last name, First name. Year. “Chapter title.” In Book title, edited by Editor name, Page numbers, Place of publication: Publisher. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx 
Kelly, John D. 2010. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

  • Journal articles: 

Last name, First name. Year. “Article title.” Journal title Volume(issue): Page numbers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx 
Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115:405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247. 

  • Newspaper articles (online): 

Last name, First name. Year. “Article title.” Newspaper title, Month Date. Accessed Month Date Year. URL. 
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. 2010. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html. 

  • Newspaper articles (print): 

Last name, First name. Year. “Article title.” Newspaper title, Month Date. 
Mendelsohn, Daniel. 2010. “But Enough about Me.” New Yorker, January 25. 

  • Conference papers: 

Last name, First name. Year. “Title.” Paper presented at Conference name, Conference location, Month Date. 
Adelman, Rachel. 2009. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24. 

  • Organisational publications/Grey literature: 

Organisation. Year. “Title.” Series/publication number. Retrieved from (if online). 
World Bank. 2008. “Textbooks and school library provision in secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa.” World Bank Working Paper No. 126. Africa Human Development Series. Retrieved from EBL database. 

  • Theses and dissertations: 

Last name, First name. Year. “Title.” PhD diss., University name. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx 
Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago. 

  • Websites: 

Author/Organisation. Year. “Title.” Accessed Month Date. URL 
McDonald’s Corporation. 2008. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

This journal uses the ‘'Chicago Notes'’ reference system – see below for examples of how to format (for more information, visit The Chicago Manual of Style Online). The below are for the Bibliography:

  • Books: 

[Last Name], [First Name]. [book title]. [PubLocation]:[Publisher], [year]. doi:[DOI]. 
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

  • Chapters within books: 

[Last Name], [First Name]. “[chapter title].” In [book title], edited by [Editor First Name] [Editor Last Name], [page range]. [Publisher Location]:[Publisher], [year]. doi:[DOI]. http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxxxxxxx 
Gould, Glenn. “Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308-311. New York: Vintage, 1984.

  • Journal articles:

[Last Name], [First Name]. “[article title].” [journal title] [vol], no. [iss] ([year]): [page range]. doi:[DOI]. 
Novak, William J. “The Myth of the Weak American State.” American Historical Review 113 no. 3 (2008): 14. doi:10.1086/ahr.133.3.14.

  • Newspaper articles (online):

[Last Name], First Name], Year. “Title”. Newspaper title, Month, Date. 
Mendelsohn, Daniel. 2010. “But Enough about Me.” New Yorker, January 25.

  • Newspaper articles (print):

[Last Name], First Name], Year. “Title”. Newspaper title, Month, Date. Accessed Month Date, Year. URL 
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. 2010. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html. 

  • Conference papers: 

[Last Name], [First Name]. Year. “Title”. Paper presented at [conference title], Location, Month, Date. 
Adelman, Rachel. 2009. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24.

  • Theses and dissertations: 

[Last Name], [First Name]. Year. “Title”. PhD diss., University Name. doi:[DOI]. 
Choi, Mihwa.2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.

  • Websites: 

[Author/Organisation]. Year. “Title”. Accessed Month Date. URL 
McDonald’s Corporation. 2008. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

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